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However, modern filament winding techniques can also be used to produce complex structures such as aircraft fuselages. In such cases, the fibers must be wound along constantly changing nonrepetitive geodesic paths to prevent slippage. Automation of this technique has led to the development of advanced computer-based integrated design and manufacturing methods.

Some representative examples are now be given of developing technologies aimed at improving, or providing alternatives to established processing routes. The resin infusion process RIFT and its variants, in which a vacuum is used to draw resin into a preform or fiber bed cf. RTM , has been successfully applied to large objects such as boat hulls. Large injection molding body technology LIMBT , offers a viable alternative to press molding of SMCs and GMTs, contrary to the widely held notion that injection molding facilities become prohibitively expensive as part sizes increase; for example, it has been used to make large automotive body components from various thermoplastic FRPs Argeropoulos et al.

Reactive thermoplastics processing, developed for PAbased composites, uses monomeric precursors for impregnation followed by polymerization in situ , avoiding the problems associated with the use of melt or solution impregnation techniques for thermoplastics Schmid and Eder , Bourban Manocha, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology , Carbon fibers are commercially available in different forms, e.

They can be combined with virtually all types of matrices, i. Most applications are found with polymeric composites. Carbon fibers are given specific surface treatments and finishes compatible with a particular thermoset or thermoplastic resin system. Though initially developed for aerospace and aeronautics applications, in the s these composites have been increasingly used in general industries such as sporting goods, automobiles, machinery, adsorbents and catalysts, electrical and electronic applications, and building materials.

PAN-based carbon fibers, due to their balanced strength and modulus, dominate such applications whereas MP carbon fibers, with their high thermal conductivity, dominate the thermal management areas. In the energy sector, VGCF and carbon fibers with a platelet structure exhibit excellent hydrogen storage capacity. Carbon fibers can act both as a conductor, like metals, as well as a semiconductor.

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Therefore, these materials open up the possibility of their use in smart structures. Carbon fibers are known to have excellent biocompatibility and as such, as well as in composite form, have been successfully used as bioimplants see Carbon in Biomedical Engineering.

Carbon fibers have low noise characteristics and have been successfully used in neurobiology for electrochemical detection of released compounds from single brain cells. Newer applications are being explored in various fields. Future efforts are likely to concentrate on producing PAN-based carbon fibers with much higher strength and moduli, approaching those of pure graphite.

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General purpose, low cost, noncircular fibers with balanced mechanical properties, in addition to high thermal conductivity, will continue to be an attraction in the pitch sector. Whittle, H. Ling, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology , There are many examples of composite geosynthetic materials. Examples include laminated PVC membranes made by calendering methods, woven and nonwoven fabrics with spread-coated impermeable membranes, and sheathed high-tenacity fiber bundles. However, the term geocomposite generally refers to products that combine two or more polymer structures.

Some of the best examples are prefabricated drains that comprise a sandwich structure with an inner core material either a net or three-dimensional pressed polymer sheet that acts as a flow conduit, and surface veneers made from geotextile filter fabrics.

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Another very important group of geocomposites that emerged in the late s are geosynthetic clay liners GCLs used as flow barriers in solid waste containment systems. This composite uses the hydrophillic properties of bentonite to act as a flow barrier in solid waste containment systems, while the geotextile provides a convenient method of installation compared to a conventional compacted clay liner. Some authors also include materials such as plastic pipe and polymer foam products as geosynthetics.

However, this chapter focuses on the four main classes identified above. Kristen L. This type of design typically utilizes a fibrous phase comprised of a non-woven, knitted, or 3D woven fabric within a cell-supporting phase comprised of a hydrogel or sponge-like material.

The cell-supporting phase generally provides a favorable environment for proliferation, differentiation, and ECM synthesis, while the fiber phase functions as a mechanical reinforcement and stabilizer for the construct. For example, hydrogels known to support chondrogenesis e.

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To test the influence of a hydrogel cell-carrier system for chondrogenesis, non-woven poly lactic-co-glycolic acid PLGA meshes were seeded with either dissociated bovine chondrocytes or with chondrocytes suspended in alginate [38] and then implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. The alginate cell-carrier increased seeding efficiency by assisting in the retention and uniform distribution of cells throughout the pores of the non-woven mesh. The fiber-reinforced hydrogel also yielded a physically robust construct that maintained its initial geometry over time, without a negative effect on ECM synthesis.

Similar studies showed success when non-woven PGA was either combined with a chondrocyte-laden fibrin gel [39] or with MSCs in a type I collagen and alginate gel [40].

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Woven 3D fabrics embedded with hydrogels have also been utilized and replicate the complex biomechanical behavior of native articular cartilage [41]. A microscale 3D weaving technique was employed to fabricate multiple layers of continuous fibers in three orthogonal directions Fig. Construct compressive mechanical properties and equilibrium coefficient of friction were found to be similar to those of native articular cartilage throughout the defined culture period Fig.

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Further, constructs seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells ASCs supported the elaboration of ECM which stained positive for the presence of chondroitin 4-sulfate and type II collagen Fig. In other studies, the infiltration of this 3D woven PCL scaffold with a slurry of cartilage-derived ECM enhanced the chondrogenesis of ASCs, while providing a mechanically functional construct that resisted cell-mediated contraction [43].

A unique advantage of this composite structure is that scaffolds can be designed and fabricated with predetermined control of site-dependent variations in mechanical properties and porosity within a biocompatible matrix.

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Structural and mechanical properties of a representative cartilage tissue-engineering scaffold. Middle Panel: Compressive biomechanical properties of scaffolds without and with cultured cells at days 0, 14, and Human adipose-derived stem cells used as cell source. Fiber reinforcement can also improve the mechanical properties of sponge-like scaffolds that otherwise have insufficient mechanical properties to support mechanical loading.

For example, a scaffold comprising a web-like collagen micro-sponge and knitted PLGA fabric was fabricated for engineering cartilage tissue [44]. The knitted fabric provided the mechanical integrity lacking in the collagen micro-sponge, and the collagen micro-sponge filled in the large pores of the fabric to facilitate uniform cell distribution and cartilage-like tissue formation.

The mechanical properties of these scaffolds could be tailored for potential use in articular cartilage repair by adjusting the material composition [46]. Collectively, this work demonstrates that fiber reinforcement is a controllable design variable that can be manipulated in order to engineer scaffolds to suit the load-bearing requirements of an engineered tissue.

Darshil U. All composite laminates were manufactured using vacuum infusion in a rigid aluminum mold. The nonwoven silk mat is unique as the low-cost fabrication process employed described in [21,22] preserves the continuous length of the silk fibers, by relying on the melt flow of the already present natural binder namely, sericin in the cocoons to bind adjacent shells. Nonwoven and woven flax and glass fiber-reinforced composites were also fabricated. We measured the tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, and toughness Charpy impact and bullet-impact properties of the composites.

Figure 6. Silk composite laminates: Nonwoven mat left and biaxial woven fabric right reinforcements.

Nabil A. Immobilization of functional nanomaterials onto fabric surface is achieved by impregnation or coating with the colloidal solution of nanomaterials. Ibrahim et al. Montazer et al. Selvam et al. A new method to impart durable antibacterial properties to PET fabric via treatment with cross-linkable polysiloxane along with nano-sized colloidal-Ag in one or two separate steps using a pad-dry cure technique has been investigated by Dastjeradi et al. Moreover, Vigneshwaran et al. Edith Classen, in Context , The skin sensorial wear comfort vote WCs can be combined with the thermophysiological properties of a textile to obtain an overall comfort vote WC.

Different mathematical formulae were developed that provide the wear comfort rating. These formulae differentiate the type of clothing and the wearer's level of activity and are based on the textile parameters measured using the skin model and skin sensory devices. The wear comfort vote can predict the perceived wear comfort in practice. Differences of 0. The thermophysiological wear comfort vote WC T for woven fabrics in occupational clothing workwear or trousers is calculated by the following formula:. Wearer trials with different garments have shown that the comfort vote WC thus predicted for a fabric is in very good agreement with the comfort sensation actually perceived by customers. As result of numerous research projects, workwear has to fulfill the following values to provide adequate comfort to the wearer Table Table Comfort parameters for workwear for the food industry.

Belforte, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology , Sharp-edged cuts are typically produced in nonmetal cutting applications. Some thermally sensitive materials exhibit slightly rolled cut-edge surfaces resulting from the thermal effects of the process. Combustible materials, such as wood or paper, may exhibit a discoloration graduating to an ash residue as thickness increases. Many woven fabrics cut by laser beam exhibit a desirable fused edge, which resists unraveling.