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If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. These French travelers and adventurers gave a fascinating Solipcism - vs - Interaction: The Dynamic Nature of Oral Literature IntroductionWith the modern over-concern with texts and their study, oral productions have come to lose their identity, of being a separate way of organizing experience and have started to be considered as variants of written products. Deep familiarity Ne Parcas Nec Spernas: A Brief Introduction to Archaeological Theory in Pakistani Context Each academic discipline, either belonging to natural or social science, has its own history of methodological and theoretical developments.

A historiographical study of any such a field is vital for the directions to be specified with regard to future The Virahini Motif in Sufi Lyrics of Shah Husayn of Lahore The sufis of the Islamicate world have sometimes articulated the transcendent experience of Divine love in their poetic compositions in an idiom of temporal human love.

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The woman-soul symbol abounds in Indo-Muslim literature, wherein the sufi poets employed A wealthy man Srigupta at Rajagriha was the follower of Jaina doctrine while his wife was Buddhist. The wife did not like the heretic Jaina teacher of her Social scientists are divided over the question whether social entities are objective i. Forts of Swat Military Architecture at the Time of the Mianguls: Domenico Faccenna Dicatum IntroductionBy means of this brief essay the authors intend to partly fill a gap in the knowledge of Swat's history and culture ante, as well as to pay a minimal tribute to the memory of Domenico Faccenna, the unforgettable leader of the Italian Rapson The Persian pronounced S as H, and the name Paralogism of Romantic Expression and War, Iskander or Alexander Horror and war are interlinked whether one turns back to the ancient times or views it in the modern atomic age.

It is embodied with abhorrence and repugnance, keeping no element of attraction or beauty, for its association with massacres, especially The Rig-Veda mentions it as Suvastu meaning fair dwelling Stein 2. The Traces of Gandhara Art on the Wooden Doorframes and Columns of Altit Fort, Hunza, Pakistan IntroductionAltit Fort marks the significance of village Altit as a center for cultural and political activities during the early era of Ayaskutz and the forgotten dynasties before they ruled.

This village is situated in the eastern areas of proper Hunza, Study of Decorative Art in the Muslim Religious Monuments with Religious Significance Introduction: Background:According to Edward, "Islamic art is the expression of a whole culture, intimately interwined with religious theological, and legal commitments" Edward Beside the theological and legal commitments the religious Persian Language and Literature during the Reign of Akbar IntroductionIndeed, Persian has been remained as the common language of private correspondence and a symbol of culture in India.

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Its position has been compared to French in Europe until recent times; therefore, Olaf Caroe has rightly called Persian as It speaks, "First thou goest united with Marriage Ceremonies and Rituals in Astore Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan IntroductionThe Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan holds a set of anomalous attributes ranging from cultural diversity to enriched historical accounts and intriguing topographic features which converges the global attentions. Spreading over an area Understanding Pakhtun Society through Proverbs IntroductionIn Pakhtun society, proverbs occupy a special place in oral literature and are the most widely used for all folklore Tair and Edwards, ; Akhtar, Rather than relics of the past, Pashto proverbs are still widely spoken and play Durranis' Rule at Peshawar: A Historical and Cultural Profile IntroductionHaving knowledge of the people and of their past, the establishment of an independent state by the Afghans in , seems circumstantial, however, the role of historical forces could not be ignored here.

Perpetual foreign dominance over the The Story of Ekasrnga in the Mahavastu with Its Parallels IntroductionThe Mahavastu is a poetic biography of the Buddha and at the same time a wonderful collection of Indian stories, in the form of Jatakas, emerging from the main hagiography like branches from the trunk of a tree. Many of them have parallels These could be opposing concepts contrasting the habitat of the ascetic It has variously been described as Kukkuta in some Jataka Androgyny as a Metaphorical Practice in South Asian Sufi Culture IntroductionThe word androgyny is derived from two ancient Greek words: andro meaning man and gyne meaning woman.

As a phenomenon, androgyny is defined by the psychologists as an ability to display both male and female characteristics in human identity With the expansion of the Muslim rule the scope Scanning Electron Microscopy in Archaeology: The Analysis of Unknown Specimen Recovered from District Shangla, Pakistan The application of the physical and chemical sciences in archaeology has made it possible to solve some of the problems and questions of archaeology. According to the Consensus Report , the total population of the village is about persons living in 50 houses No previous linguistic literature has reported the language O'Leary, ; Grierson, ; Morgenstierne, Cave architecture, although it evolved originally from the natural cave dwellings of hermit Goetz , it is made in imitation of traditional The obverse design of these coins Political Condition of Ancient Gandhara Region from Sixth Century BCE to Sixth Century CE Gandhara forms a most important link connecting India with the West due to its distinctive position among all the regions of India since its history may be traced with notable continuity from the earliest times to the recent days.

Its fame rests mainly Representation of ParinirvaNa in Gandharan Diptychs IntroductionThere is a huge corpus of Gandharan sculptures and reliefs translating textual versions of the life of Sakyamuni into stone. The corpus forms major part of collections of different museums all over the world.

These objects have been comprehensively Foreign Influences on the Sculptures of Nimogram, Swat Valley Nimogram, a very significant Buddhist site of Swat Valley has yielded considerable number of artifacts; the total number of artifacts recovered from this single Buddhist site is The sculptures are intermingled with stones from the stupas. Not a Khalil, Mohmand, Daudzai and Chamkani tribes quickly moved in and soon became "too rich and arrogant for Yusufzai stomachs Muslim rule influence began with the advent of Mahmud of Ghazni in AD culminating with the Mughals up to The Sikhs ruled the Punjab for 50 years who were succeeded by the British in This village was established during 19th century under Baloch tribes too rely on their unique cultural and traditional style of living.

The life of Baloch tribes is ruled by distinct Structural Design of the Buildings in Gandhara as Gleaned on Sculptures IntroductionThe study of the material culture defined in the Gandhara sculptures is based on the hypothesis that the sculptors of Gandhara, as they depicted the Buddhist themes, had in their mind the contemporary persons and things around them. By using C- 1st century.

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D Although it is a well studied subject Briant , it is still interesting Representations of the Romance of Suhni-Mehar in the Kalhora Tombs , Sindh, Pakistan IntroductionThe Kalhoras ruled over the province of Sindh for more than a century , leaving behind a large number of funerary monuments Kalhoro These monuments are located in almost every district of Sindh. The distinctive feature Besides men, images of women keep essential space in illustrated manuscripts of the Muslim world. All spheres of life from marginalised to the dwellers of palaces that is It was also called Takshashila in Sanskrit in ancient India Marshall Taxila Valley lies north Latitude It opened a new chapter of great intellectual and artistic activities in the Indian history.

The height of this urban development was reached in the Middle Bronze Age c.


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The Kulli culture , [19] [20] similar to those of the Indus Valley Civilisation , was located in southern Balochistan Gedrosia c. Agriculture was the economical base of this people. At several places dams were found, providing evidence for a highly developed water management system. Konar Sandal is associated with the hypothesized " Jiroft culture ", a 3rd-millennium-BC culture postulated on the basis of a collection of artifacts confiscated in Old Syrian; corresponding to the Middle Bronze.

Middle Syrian; corresponding to the Late Bronze. The term Neo-Syria is used to designate the early Iron Age. The old Syrian period was dominated by the Eblaite first kingdom , Nagar and the Mariote second kingdom. The Akkadian conquered large areas of the Levant and were followed by the Amorite kingdoms , c. The earliest known Ugarit contact with Egypt and the first exact dating of Ugaritic civilization comes from a carnelian bead identified with the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Senusret I, — BC.

However, it is unclear at what time these monuments got to Ugarit. In the Amarna letters , messages from Ugarit c. The Mitanni was a loosely organized state in northern Syria and south-east Anatolia from c.

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Founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class that governed a predominantly Hurrian population, Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Kassite Babylon created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. At its beginning, Mitanni's major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. However, with the ascent of the Hittite empire, Mitanni and Egypt made an alliance to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination.

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At the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, it had outposts centered on its capital, Washukanni , which archaeologists have located on the headwaters of the Khabur River. Eventually, Mitanni succumbed to Hittite, and later Assyrian attacks, and was reduced to a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire. The Israelites were an ancient Semitic-speaking people of the Ancient Near East who inhabited part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods 15th to 6th centuries BC , [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] and lived in the region in smaller numbers after the fall of the monarchy.

The name "Israel" first appears c. Large groups migrated to Mesopotamia, where they intermingled with the native Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian population. The Aramaeans never had a unified empire; they were divided into independent kingdoms all across the Near East. After the Bronze Age collapse, their political influence was confined to a number of Syro-Hittite states, which were entirely absorbed into the Neo-Assyrian Empire by the 8th century BC. Instead, a division primarily based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common.

The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people. The Akkadian Empire — BC became the dominant power in the region, and after its fall the Sumerians enjoyed a renaissance with the Neo-Sumerian Empire. Assyria was extant from as early as the 25th century BC, and became a regional power with the Old Assyrian Empire c.

The earliest mention of Babylon then a small administrative town appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC. The Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC. Over years later, it briefly took over the other city-states and formed the short lived First Babylonian Empire during what is also called the Old Babylonian Period.

Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia all used the written East Semitic Akkadian language for official use and as a spoken language.

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By that time, the Sumerian language was no longer spoken, but was still in religious use in Assyria and Babylonia, and would remain so until the 1st century AD. The Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role in later Assyrian and Babylonian culture, even though Babylonia unlike the more militarily powerful Assyria itself was founded by non-native Amorites and often ruled by other non-indigenous peoples, such as Kassites , Arameans and Chaldeans , as well as its Assyrian neighbours.

Its sites were discovered and named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi The Altai Mountains in what is now southern Russia and central Mongolia have been identified as the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon. In China, the earliest bronze artifacts have been found in the Majiayao culture site between and BC.

The term "Bronze Age" has been transferred to the archaeology of China from that of Western Eurasia, and there is no consensus or universally used convention delimiting the "Bronze Age" in the context of Chinese prehistory. By convention, the "Early Bronze Age" in China is sometimes taken as equivalent to the " Shang dynasty " period of Chinese prehistory 16th to 11th centuries BC , [37] and the "Later Bronze Age" as equivalent to the " Zhou dynasty " period 11th to 3rd centuries BC, from the 5th century also dubbed " Iron Age " , although there is an argument to be made that the "Bronze Age" proper never ended in China, as there is no recognizable transition to an "Iron Age".

Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou Wade—Giles : Erh-li-t'ou period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty.

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The widespread use of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture dates to significantly later, probably due to Western influence. While there may be reason to believe that bronzework developed inside China separately from outside influence, [43] the discovery of Europoid mummies in Xinjiang suggests a possible route of transmission from the West beginning in the early second millennium BC.

A few human mummies alone cannot provide sufficient explanation of metallurgy transmission. Furthermore, the oldest bronze objects found in China so far were discovered at the Majiayao site in Gansu rather than Xinjiang [45].


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  4. While some direct information about the Shang dynasty comes from Shang-era inscriptions on bronze artifacts, most comes from oracle bones — turtle shells, cattle scapulae, or other bones — which bear glyphs that form the first significant corpus of recorded Chinese characters. Iron is found from the Zhou dynasty , but its use is minimal. Chinese literature dating to the 6th century BC attests knowledge of iron smelting, yet bronze continues to occupy the seat of significance in the archaeological and historical record for some time after this.

    compwenphahuf.tk White argues that iron did not supplant bronze "at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty BC " and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels all the way through the Later Han period , or to BC [ sic? The Chinese bronze artifacts generally are either utilitarian, like spear points or adze heads, or "ritual bronzes" , which are more elaborate versions in precious materials of everyday vessels, as well as tools and weapons.