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Materials Modification by Electronic Excitation
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Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. These forms of radiation occur due to fact that electrons moving in orbits around the nucleus of an atom are arranged in different energy levels within their probability distribution functions.
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Many of the electrons can absorb additional energy from external sources of electromagnetic radiation see Figure 3 , which results in their promotion to an inherently unstable higher energy level. Eventually, the "excited" electron loses the extra energy by emitting electromagnetic radiation of lower energy and, in doing so, falls back into its original and stable energy level. The energy of the emitted radiation equals the energy that was originally absorbed by the electron minus other small quantities of energy lost through a number of secondary processes.
Electromagnetic radiation energy levels can vary to a significant degree depending upon the energy of source electrons or nuclei. For example, radio waves possess significantly less energy than do microwaves, infrared rays, or visible light, and all of these waves contain far less energy than ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma waves.
As a rule, higher electromagnetic radiation energies are associated with shorter wavelengths than similar forms of radiation having lower energy. The relationship between the energy of an electromagnetic wave and its frequency is expressed by the equation :.
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Based on this equation, the energy of an electromagnetic wave is directly proportional to its frequency and inversely proportional to the wavelength. Thus, as frequency increases with a corresponding decrease in wavelength , the electromagnetic wave energy increases, and vice versa. Mortimer Abramowitz - Olympus America, Inc.
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Underlying this development are some common themes which integrate the the basic science and its applications. These include especially the ideas of energy localisation and charge localisation. The most detailed comparisons of experiment and theory are for halides, but there is a wealth of information for other materials.