This result shows the influence that socioeconomic status has on health outcomes and behaviors. Studies show there is an increase of childhood obesity among lower socioeconomic groups [ 20 ]. The CHIP program specifically enrolls children who have been identified as high risk based on family income as well as minority children and adolescents who are disproportionately burdened by obesity [ 20 ]. The CHIP program is one example of efforts that are being done to prevent obesity in the high-risk population related to disparities.
There are many factors that play into obesity in general. Lifestyle choice is the number one cause for obesity. There are many different factors that play into why bad choices are made. Financial resources or the lack of is one reason that is thought to impact obesity.
Children that live in lower socioeconomic areas report a lack of safe areas for their children to get exercise. People report this as being a reason their kids are staying inside instead of going outside to play. Lack of education may contribute to poor food choices. A large body of epidemiologic data show that diet quality follows a socioeconomic gradient [ 21 ]. While reviewing the literature, studies show that obese parents are more likely to have obese children.
What this suggest is the children are subject to their environment. Parents are instilling their poor choices into the children. Therefore, obese and overweight children are more likely to be obese as adults.
They are carrying their behaviors they have learned into adulthood as their own. The Center for Disease Control CDC has funded a multisetting, multilevel MSML program to support both children and their families to promote supportive environments in settings where children spend time, such as schools and child care centers [ 20 ].
These programs are being created in hopes to decrease obesity while addressing the lower socioeconomic burdens that children face. There is a team that communicates and works together to bring all the resources available together to provide the most optimal outcomes. They do this by bringing healthcare providers and community health workers in to work together.
This is a way to support the children and their families or even provide hands-on instruction on how to make healthier choices in the community [ 20 ]. A research was done in Germany on how promoting drinking water in schools would decrease or prevent obesity.
This program proved to be successful. The conclusion was that the environmental and educational, school-based intervention proved to be effective in the prevention of overweight among children in elementary school, even in a population from socially deprived areas [ 22 ].
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- Addressing Childhood Obesity with Education.
Based on the literature review regarding school based programs, there is proven success demonstrating a significant impact from addressing obesity from this angle. Childhood obesity can be tackled by education, prevention and sustainable interventions related to healthy nutrition practices and physical activity promotion per a recent study. Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using measured heights and weights, indicate that an estimated There is not just one reason for the increase in childhood obesity throughout the world. Childhood obesity has many different reasons for the issue which gives great reason to tackle this problem using a team approach.
The team approach could consist of angles such as clinic programs, school programs, and community programs. These different programs would tackle obesity at different angles. Using a team approach, research can find a way to change behaviors and health around to impact the future health of the U.
A team can look at all different reasons for the epidemic and offer different solutions. An ongoing research is looking at the effectiveness of a community based program CBP. The community based program is a family-based approach with an active involvement of the parents and the children to actively produce change with adults and children. This is an excellent way to approach childhood obesity because of the dynamics.
Hopscotch Books. Healthy Schools, Healthy Lives - A Teacher's Guide To Tackling Childhood Obesity
Research shows most obese parents have obese children. Children are subject to the environment they are provided. This study should provide great evidence on how a community program working with parents and children is effective and the researchers believe if it is successful could mean a breakthrough in combating the obesity epidemic. The scope of the project was to educate the adolescent age group so they can make healthier choices to improve their quality of life.
A Teacher's Guide to Childhood Obesity Prevention in the Classroom
The goal is to not only impact their lives but hopefully they will continue to share what they have learned with others. Educating on the epidemic of obesity in adults and children is not enough. People need to know the difference between healthy behaviors and unhealthy behaviors. Unhealthy behaviors are behind the obesity epidemic. The better the evidence, the stronger the benefits of applying the indicators in terms of reduced morbidity and mortality or improved quality of care [ 25 ]. While reviewing the literature on childhood obesity, one study stood out proving that dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors, as reported by adolescents, predict significant weight gain over time [ 26 ].
It is not exactly clear as to why these individuals using these dieting techniques are more likely to be obese adults. There are a few thoughts on why this may be occurring.
Childhood obesity prevention and physical activity in schools
Dieting may be used short term and not a lifestyle change of eating healthy and being physically active. If the behaviors consist of diet pills, no eating or very little food intake, there may be binge eating in that diagram as well. These behaviors are not considered healthy even though initially you may get the weight loss results you desire. Literature keeps pointing to healthy choices and making that lifestyle change a permanent one. Research also recognizes the childhood obesity epidemic as a unique issue to conquer. There is not just one approach to be taken. Adults should be considered in the paradigm that is to be used.
Educating children and offering community projects is a piece to the puzzle but should be followed up with the support of the parents or guardians.
Children and adolescents need the support of their caregivers to make it a lifestyle and behavioral change that last through their lifespan. Providing nutritional information to children and adolescents is important for optimal nutritional choices and building healthy habits [ 27 ]. The purpose of the study was to determine if providing education to students is effective in changing knowledge of health behaviors.
The theory of planned behavior proves that the strongest relationship exists between intention, attitude, and change [ 28 ]. The result of a recent research proposes that the Theory of Planned Behavior is an effective way to address nutrition related behaviors in youth [ 28 ]. One study found that the child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviors, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10—12 years [ 29 ]. A pre-and post-test was administered to measure increased scores of knowledge on healthy behaviors.
The American Heart Association recommends a diet high in fiber, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, and foods low in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, salt sodium , and added sugars [ 12 ]. The purpose of the project is to assess for knowledge gained from education. Efforts to combat obesity can be achieved with diet and exercise [ 5 ].
Exercise throughout life will help avoid osteopenia, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, benefits with metabolism and cardiovascular function [ 31 ]. The anticipation of educating the youth about the effects of obesity and results of an unhealthy lifestyle will change the behaviors.
The benefit of the project to nursing practice will be for the public to gain knowledge on the detrimental effects of obesity while changing their behavior which will improve the quality of life for most of the U. The expected outcome of educating the youth is that not only will we be able to change their behavior but they will in turn influence their parents, grandparents, and siblings to also start living a healthier life.
If we can change the behavior of these generations then we have a much better chance of the upcoming generation being healthier. The desire is that our money can start to be spent on preventative medicine instead of all the preventable disease and health conditions people are at risk for and developing because of unhealthy lifestyles. The objective for centering a project on childhood obesity is to improve the quality of life. Health-risk behaviors such as early sexual initiation, violence, and physical inactivity are consistently linked to poor grades and test scores and lower educational attainment [ 32 ].
The goal to improve the health of children will also be a benefit for them later in life as it prevents chronic diseases. The objective is to change unhealthy behaviors in the adolescent population through educational intervention. Research also has shown that school health programs can reduce the occurrence of health risk behaviors among young people while having a positive effect on academic performance [ 32 ]. This study used a convenience sample.