Among the earliest known jade artifacts excavated from prehistoric sites are simple ornaments with bead, button, and tubular shapes.
As metal-working technologies became available, the beauty of jade made it valuable for ornaments and decorative objects. Nephrite can be found in a creamy white form known in China as "mutton fat" jade as well as in a variety of light green colours, whereas jadeite shows more colour variations, including blue, brown, red, black, dark green, lavender and white. Translucent emerald-green jadeite is the most prized variety, both historically and today.
As "quetzal" jade, bright green jadeite from Guatemala was treasured by Mesoamerican cultures, and as "kingfisher" jade, vivid green rocks from Burma became the preferred stone of post Chinese imperial scholars and rulers. Burma Myanmar and Guatemala are the principal sources of modern gem jadeite.https://ebenugmentu.tk
In the area of Mogaung in the Myitkyina District of Upper Burma, jadeite formed a layer in the dark-green serpentine, and has been quarried and exported for well over a hundred years. In addition to Mesoamerica, jadeite was used by Neolithic Japanese and European cultures. Jade may be enhanced sometimes called "stabilized". Some merchants will refer to these as grades, but degree of enhancement is different from colour and texture quality. In other words, Type A jadeite is not enhanced but can have poor colour and texture. There are three main methods of enhancement, sometimes referred to as the ABC Treatment System: .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the gemstone. For other uses, see Jade disambiguation. Ornamental stone, commonly green.
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Main article: Chinese jade. See also: Lingling-o. Main article: Pounamu. Main article: Jade use in Mesoamerica. Retrieved Pre-Columbian Jade from Costa Rica. The Art of Opium Antiques. The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, The Imperial Gazetteer of India , Vol. Asian Perspectives 45 2 —, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 50 , — Collections Online. Retrieved 25 November Te Ara — the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 26 January Canadian Geographic. Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 6 November Polar Jade. Retrieved 9 October Asian Perspectives 42 1 :1—40, , p. When we first started the movie, Cheng Pei Pei was going to have her accent, and Chang Zhen was going to have his accent, and this person would have that accent. And in the end nobody could understand what they were saying. Forget about us, even the crew from Beijing thought this was all weird.
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The film led to a boost in popularity of Chinese wuxia films in the western world, where they were previously little known, and led to films such as House of Flying Daggers and Hero marketed towards Western audiences. The film also provided the breakthrough role for Zhang Ziyi's career, who noted:. Because of movies like Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon , Hero , and Memoirs of a Geisha , a lot of people in the United States have become interested not only in me but in Chinese and Asian actors in general. Because of these movies, maybe there will be more opportunities for Asian actors.
The character of Lo, or "Dark Cloud" the desert bandit, influenced the development of the protagonist of the Prince of Persia series of video games. The film is ranked at number on Empire 's list of the greatest movies of all time  and at number 66 in the magazine's Best Films of World Cinema, published in In , it was voted the 35th-best film of the 21st century as picked by film critics from around the world.
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Film Journal noted that Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon "pulled off the rare trifecta of critical acclaim, boffo box-office and gestalt shift",  in reference to its ground-breaking success for a subtitled film in the American market. In , The Guardian ranked the film 51st in its best films of the 21st century list. Wu and Chan look at Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon as somewhat of an example of " counter-flow ", a film that has challenged Hollywood's grip on the film market.
Despite its international success and perceived ability to change the flow from East to West, however, there were still instances of Western adaptation for the movie, such as putting more emphasis on female characters to better execute a balance between gender roles in the East and West.
The script of the film was written between Taiwan and Hollywood and in translating the film to English, many cultural references were lost, which made maintaining the cultural authenticity of the film while still reaching out to the West very difficult. The thematic conflict throughout the movie between societal roles and personal desires attribute to the international reception of the film, which resonates with both the Eastern and Western audiences. Additionally, international networks were used in the production and promotion of the film, which were needed to achieve its global distribution.
Additional marketing strategies were needed for the film to attract the Western audience, who were unfamiliar with the cultural products of the East. The film premiered in cinemas on December 8, , in limited release within the US. For that particular weekend, the film fell to eighth place screening in theaters. Gathering widespread critical acclaim at the Toronto and New York film festivals, the film also became a favorite when Academy Awards nominations were announced in The film was, however, screened out of competition at the Cannes Film Festival. It was directed by Yuen Woo-ping, who was the action choreographer for the first film.
It features a mostly new cast, headed by Donnie Yen. Michelle Yeoh reprised her role from the original.
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In the United States, the sequel was for the most part not shown in theaters, instead being distributed via the video streaming service Netflix. The theme of Janet Jackson 's song " China Love " was related to the film by MTV News , in which Jackson sings of the daughter of an emperor in love with a warrior, unable to sustain relations when forced to marry into royalty. The names of the pterosaur genus Kryptodrakon and the ceratopsian genus Yinlong both meaning hidden dragon in Greek and Mandarin respectively allude to the film. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon disambiguation.
Chinese theatrical release poster. Main article: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon soundtrack. British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 19 February British Film Institute. Retrieved 6 November Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 7 April Accessed December 30, The New York Times.
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Retrieved 11 April Archived from the original on 14 December Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 27 June Turner Broadcasting System. TV Guide. Yahoo Movies. Retrieved 29 June Only one of the stars -- Zhang, then a year-old ingenue -- spoke anything like the classical mainland Mandarin that Lee demanded. Chicago Sun Times.
China International Information Center. Retrieved 24 July Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 19 December Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 6 March CBS Interactive.