Other, usually lower cost items or supporting material used in the production of in a finished product are called indirect materials. For example, the length of thread used in a garment. Furthermore, these can be categorized into three different types of inventories that must be accounted for in different ways; raw materials, work-in-progress, and finished goods. Any wages paid to workers or a group of workers which may directly co-relate to any specific activity of production, maintenance, transportation of material, or product, and directly associate in the conversion of raw material into finished goods are called direct labour.
Wages paid to trainee or apprentices does not come under the category of direct labour as they have no significant value. These categories are flexible and sometimes overlapping. For example, in some companies, machine cost is segregated from overhead and reported as a separate element altogether, and payroll costs are sometimes separated from other production costs. Classification of cost means, the grouping of costs according to their common characteristics. The important ways of classification of costs are:.
In modern cost account of recording historical costs was taken further, by allocating the company's fixed costs over a given period of time to the items produced during that period, and recording the result as the total cost of production. This allowed the full cost of products that were not sold in the period they were produced to be recorded in inventory using a variety of complex accounting methods, which was consistent with the principles of GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.
It also essentially enabled managers to ignore the fixed costs, and look at the results of each period in relation to the "standard cost" for any given product.
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This method tended to slightly distort the resulting unit cost, but in mass-production industries that made one product line, and where the fixed costs were relatively low, the distortion was very minor. An important part of standard cost accounting is a variance analysis , which breaks down the variation between actual cost and standard costs into various components volume variation, material cost variation, labor cost variation, etc.
As business became more complex and began producing a greater variety of products, the use of cost accounting to make decisions to maximize profitability came into question. Management circles became increasingly aware of the Theory of Constraints in the s and began to understand that "every production process has a limiting factor" somewhere in the chain of production.
As business management learned to identify the constraints, they increasingly adopted throughput accounting to manage them and "maximize the throughput dollars " or other currency from each unit of constrained resource. Throughput accounting aims to make the best use of scarce resources bottleneck in a JIT Just in time environment.
Activity-based costing ABC is a system for assigning costs to products based on the activities they require. In this case, activities are those regular actions performed inside a company. Companies may be moved to adopt ABC by a need to improve costing accuracy, that is, understand better the true costs and profitability of individual products, services, or initiatives. ABC gets closer to true costs in these areas by turning many costs that standard cost accounting views as indirect costs essentially into direct costs. By contrast, standard cost accounting typically determines so-called indirect and overhead costs simply as a percentage of certain direct costs, which may or may not reflect actual resource usage for individual items.
The accountant then can determine the total cost spent on each activity by summing up the percentage of each worker's salary spent on that activity. A company can use the resulting activity cost data to determine where to focus its operational improvements. For example, a job-based manufacturer may find that a high percentage of its workers are spending their time trying to figure out a hastily written customer order. Senior management can now decide how much focus or money to budget for resolving this process deficiency.
Activity-based management includes but is not restricted to the use of activity-based costing to manage a business. While ABC Activity-based costing may be able to pinpoint the cost of each activity and resources into the ultimate product, the process could be tedious, costly and subject to errors. As it is a tool for a more accurate way of allocating fixed costs into a product, these fixed costs do not vary according to each month's production volume.
For example, the elimination of one product would not eliminate the overhead or even direct labour cost assigned to it. Activity-based costing ABC better identifies product costing in the long run, but may not be too helpful in day-to-day decision-making.
EVA-PBC methodology plays an interesting role in bringing strategy back into financial performance measures. Lean accounting  has developed in recent years to provide the accounting, control, and measurement methods supporting lean manufacturing and other applications of lean thinking such as healthcare, construction, insurance, banking, education, government, and other industries. There are two main thrusts for Lean Accounting. The first is the application of lean methods to the company's accounting, control, and measurement processes. This is not different from applying lean methods to any other processes.
These are replaced by:. As an organization becomes more mature with lean thinking and methods, they recognize that the combined methods of lean accounting in fact creates a lean management system LMS designed to provide the planning, the operational and financial reporting, and the motivation for change required to prosper the company's on-going lean transformation. The cost-volume-profit analysis is the systematic examination of the relationship between selling prices, sales, production volumes, costs, expenses and profits.
Best Practices for Manufacturing Companies
This analysis provides very useful information for decision-making in the management of a company. For example, the analysis can be used in establishing sales prices, in the product mix selection to sell, in the decision to choose marketing strategies, and in the analysis of the impact on profits by changes in costs. In the current environment of business, a business administration must act and take decisions in a fast and accurate manner.
As a result, the importance of cost-volume-profit is still increasing as time passes. A relationship between the cost, volume and profit is the contribution margin. The contribution margin is the revenue excess from sales over variable costs.
The concept of contribution margin is particularly useful in the planning of business because it gives an insight into the potential profits that a business can generate. The following chart shows the income statement of a company X, which has been prepared to show its contribution margin:. The contribution margin can also be expressed as a percentage.
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The contribution margin ratio, which is sometimes called the profit-volume ratio, indicates the percentage of each sales dollar available to cover fixed costs and to provide operating revenue. For the company Fusion, Inc. The contribution margin ratio measures the effect on operating income of an increase or a decrease in sales volume. For example, assume that the management of Fusion, Inc. To validate this analysis the table below shows the income statement of the company including additional orders:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The article discusses the use of robotic process automation RPA in accounting firms in relation to the notion of agile organizations.
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To borrow this book please contact the Library. Complete CFO handbook: from accounting to accountability, The The book contains chapters on obtaining funding, corporate risk management, business strategy and financial planning, performance measurement and transfer pricing, asset management, cost management and finance function effectiveness. Controller's function: the work of the managerial accountant, The The book aims to provide the management accountant with facts and guidance for all aspects of their role.
Cost management and control in government: fighting the cost war through leadership driven management The book uses numerous real life case studies to show how and why governments should implement cost management strategies. Showing 3 of 8 items View more.
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Online articles The Library provides access to leading business, finance and management journals. Effective financial projections for a startup Practical considerations to help startups develop a business plan with meaningful financial projections. Can RPA improve agility?
click Showing 3 of 32 items View more. Atom Content Marketing guides Cost control Cutting costs is the simplest way to improve your bottom line. Introducing a cost control system can bring immediate savings and make sure that you remain competitive in the longer term. Managing your creditors You rely on good relations with creditors for the smooth operation of your business.